Academia Fran Cambridge English Language Exam Preperation Centre

Word Formation

1. Negative Prefixes

Attached to words

- (adjectives, nouns, adverbs) formed from them:

UN- unbreakable
NON- non-scientific
IN- indigestible
DIS- disloyal
A- amoral

Attached to verbs

UN- undress
dis- disobey
MIS- misbehave, mistake

2. Noun Suffixes

Nationality. Naming people, places and languages

-ER Dubliner
-ISH Spanish
-ESE Chinese
-(I)AN Rumanian, American
-ITE Israelite

Action, state. Nouns from verbs

-ATION exploration
-ION expression
-MENT agreement
-AL dismissal

3. Verb Suffixes

-EN thicken, darken (nouns: thickener, darkener)
-IFY purify (noun: purifier)
-IZE standardize
-ABLE reliable, unbelievable, unbearable

4. Adjective Suffixes

Describing people and things

-IC economic
-(A)TIC systematic
-AL musical, commercial, textual
-AR circular, angular, solar
-IVE productive
-OUS ambitious, erroneous
-ISH womanish
-LY fatherly, queenly, womanly
-Y rubbery, sandy
-LIKE manlike, glasslike
-FUL useful, beautiful
-LESS useless, colourless

5. Adverb Suffixes

-LY happily, strangely
-ALLY scenically, annually
-WARD(S) backwards, forwards, outwards, onwards, rightwards, homewards
-WISE likewise